A D V E R T I S E M E N T
visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall,
computer screen, paper, or stone to
illustrate, or entertain. Examples are
engineering drawings, or other
color. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or
arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, web site, or
book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the
objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely,
the creation of a distinctive style.
Graphics can be functional or artistic. The latter can be a recorded version,
such as a photograph, or an interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential
features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics
may become blurred.
The earliest graphics known to anthropologists studying prehistoric periods
cave paintings and markings on boulders, bone, ivory, and antlers, which
were created during the
Upper Palaeolithic period from 40,000–10,000
B.C. or earlier. Many of these were found to record astronomical, seasonal,
and chronological details. Some of the earliest graphics and drawings known to
modern world, from almost 6,000 years ago, are that of engraved
stone tablets and ceramic
cylinder seals, marking the beginning of the historic periods and the
keeping of records for accounting and inventory purposes. Records from Egypt
predate these and
papyrus was used by the
Egyptians as a material on which to plan the building of
pyramids; they also used slabs of
and wood. From
600–250 BC, the Greeks played a major role in
They used graphics to represent their mathematical theories such as the
Circle Theorem and the
Cleft (graphic by Irina Minaeva)
Drawing generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure
from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface. Common tools are
Digital tools which simulate the effects of these are also used. The main
techniques used in drawing are line drawing,
crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling,
blending, and shading.
Drawing is generally considered distinct from
in which colored
pigments are suspended in a liquid
medium and are usually applied with a brush. Notable great drawers include
Sir Michael Ash and
Leonardo da Vinci.
Many people choose drawing as a main art style, or they may use it to sketch
out paintings, sculptures and other styles of art.
Middle Ages and
Post Modern Ages, feet were very distorted; for example, people on a castle
wall appeared disproportionately large because they were the painting's focus.
perspective became more important, characterized by the technique of looking
through a wire mesh to precisely copy dimensions onto a corresponding grid drawn
on canvas. During the
Renaissance, artists took a non-mathematical approach to drawing.
Giotto di Bondone and
Duccio di Buoninsegna made great advancements in perspective drawing, using
converging lines and
foreshortening. Many renaissance painters also used
directly onto walls—a technique which finds its prototype in cave and rock art.
Graphics of this kind, from 30–40,000 years ago, have survived in Australia and
France. A modern day equivalent is the