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Sintaxe de XPath

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Sintaxe de XPath

A língua do trajeto de XML usa uma notação declarativa melhor que processual. Cada expressão tornou-se por esta notação descreve os tipos de nós ao fósforo baseado no relacionamento hierárquico entre os nós. Por exemplo, autor da expressão do “os meios livro/” encontram o elemento do autor contido no elemento do livro.




Exemplo de XML
Um original de XML é dado abaixo.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?><bookstore><book>
<title lang="eng">Harry Potter</title>
<price>29.99</price>
</book><book>
<title lang="eng">Learning XML</title>
<price>39.95</price>
</book></bookstore>




Selecionando nós

Para selecionar expressões do trajeto dos usos de XPath dos nós. O nó é selecionado seguindo um trajeto. As expressões as mais úteis do trajeto são: -


Expression Description
nodename Selects all child nodes of the node
/ Selects from the root node
// Selects nodes in the document from the current node that match the selection no matter where they are
. Selects the current node
.. Selects the parent of the current node
@ Selects attributes

Exemplo
Tabela dada abaixo nós alistamos algumas expressões do trajeto e o resultado das expressões:

Path Expression Result
bookstore Selects all the child nodes of the bookstore element
/bookstore Selects the root element bookstore

Note: If the path starts with a slash ( / ) it always represents an absolute path to an element!

bookstore/book Selects all book elements that are children of bookstore
//book Selects all book elements no matter where they are in the document
bookstore//book Selects all book elements that are descendant of the bookstore element, no matter where they are under the bookstore element
//@lang Selects all attributes that are named lang



Predicados

Os predicados são usados encontrar um nó específico que contenha um valor. Os predicados são encaixados sempre nos suportes quadrados.


Exemplo

Tabela dada abaixo nós alistamos algumas expressões do trajeto com predicados e o resultado das expressões:


Path Expression Result
/bookstore/book[1]

Selects the first book element that is the child of the bookstore element

/bookstore/book[last()]

Selects the last book element that is the child of the bookstore element

/bookstore/book[last()-1]

Selects the last but one book element that is the child of the bookstore element

/bookstore/book[position()<3]

Selects the first two book elements that are children of the bookstore element

//title[@lang]

Selects all the title elements that have an attribute named lang

//title[@lang='eng']

Selects all the title elements that have an attribute named lang with a value of 'eng'

/bookstore/book[price>35.00]

Selects all the book elements of the bookstore element that have a price element with a value greater than 35.00

/bookstore/book[price>35.00]/title

Selects all the title elements of the book elements of the bookstore element that have a price element with a value greater than 35.00




Como nós que selecionamos nós desconhecidos?
Os Wildcards podem ser usados selecionar elementos desconhecidos de XML.

Wildcard Description
* Matches any element node
@* Matches any attribute node
node() Matches any node of any kind

Exemplo
Tabela dada abaixo nós alistamos algumas expressões do trajeto e o resultado das expressões:

Path Expression Result
/bookstore/* Selects all the child nodes of the bookstore element
//* Selects all elements in the document
//title[@*] Selects all title elements which have any attribute




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