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Syntax-4


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RAISE for Class-Based Exceptions

Raises an exception.

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

Syntax

RAISE EXCEPTION TYPE <class> | <ref>.

Terminates processing and raises an exception of the exception class <class>. If the reference variable <ref> points to an object of an exception class, <class> can be specified instead of TYPE.

RAISE for Exceptions of Function Modules and Methods

Raises exceptions.

Syntax

RAISE <except>.

Only occurs in function modules and methods. Terminates processing and raises an exception <except> defined in the interface.

RAISE for Events

Triggers events in ABAP Objects.

Syntax

RAISE EVENT <evt>.

Only occurs in methods. Triggers the event <evt> and calls all registered handler methods.

RANGES

Declares a RANGES table.

Syntax

RANGES <rangetab> FOR <f>.

Declares a RANGES table for the field <f>. A RANGES table has the same data type as a selection table, but is not linked to input fields on a selection screen.

READ for Files

Reads a file.

Syntax

READ DATASET <dsn> INTO <f>
[MAXIMUM LENGTH <maxlen>]
[ACTUAL LENGTH <len>].

Reads the contents of the file <dsn> on the application server to the variable <f>. The amount of data can be specified using MAXIMUM LENGTH. The number of bytes transferred can be written to <len> using ACTUAL LENGTH.

READ for any Internal Table

Reads a line of an internal table.

Syntax

READ TABLE <itab>  FROM <wa>
|WITH TABLE KEY <k1> = <f1>… <kn> = <fn>
|WITH KEY = <f>
|WITH KEY <k1> = <f1>… <kn> = <fn>
INTO <wa> [COMPARING <f1> <f2>… |ALL FIELDS]
[TRANSPORTING <f1> <f2>… |ALL FIELDS|NO FIELDS]
|ASSIGNING <FS>
|REFERENCE INTO <dref>.

This statement reads either the line of the internal table with the same key as specified in the work area <wa>, the line with the key specified in the TABLE KEY addition, the line that corresponds fully to <f>, or the one corresponding to the freely-defined key in the KEY addition. The contents of the line are either written to the work area <wa>, or the line is assigned to the field symbol <FS>. If you assign the line to a work area, you can compare field contents and specify the fields that you want to transport.

READ for Index Tables

Reads a line of an internal table.

Syntax

READ TABLE <itab> INDEX <idx>   INTO <wa>…
| ASSIGNING <FS>
| REFERENCE INTO <dref>.

The line with index 7 is read. The result is specified as with any internal table.

READ for Lists

Reads the contents of a line from a list.

Syntax

READ LINE  <n> [INDEX <idx>] [OF CURRENT PAGE|OF PAGE <p>]
|CURRENT LINE
[FIELD VALUE <f1> [INTO <g1>]… <fn> [INTO <gn>]].

Reads either the line <n> on the current or specified list or page, or the last line to have been selected by the user. The addition specifies the fields that you want to read, and the target fields into which they should be placed. The entire line is always placed in the system field SY-LISEL, and the HIDE area is filled for the line.

READ for Programs

Reads ABAP programs into the program library.

Syntax

READ REPORT <prog> INTO <itab>.

Copies the lines of the program <prog> into the internal table <itab>.

RECEIVE

Receives results from an asynchronous function module call.

Syntax

RECEIVE RESULTS FROM FUNCTION <func> [KEEPING TASK]
[IMPORTING … fi = a i… ]
[TABLES    … fi = a i… ]
[EXCEPTIONS… ei = r i… ]

Occurs in special subroutines to receive IMPORTING and TABLES parameters from function modules called using the STARTING NEW TASK addition

TABLES

Declares an interface work area.

Syntax

TABLES <dbtab>.

Declares a structure with the same data type and the same name as a database table, a view, or a structure from the ABAP Dictionary. Structures in main programs and subroutines declared using TABLES use a common data area.

TOP-OF-PAGE

Event keywords for defining event blocks for list events.

Syntax

TOP-OF-PAGE [DURING LINE-SELECTION].

Whenever a new page begins while a standard list is being created, the runtime environment triggers the TOP-OF-PAGE event and the corresponding event block is executed. The addition DURING LINE-SELECTION has the same function, but for detail lists.

TRANSFER

Writes to a file.

Syntax

TRANSFER <f> TO [LENGTH <len>].

Writes the field <f> to the file <dsn> on the application server. You can specify the length of the data you want to transfer using the LENGTH addition.

TRANSLATE

Converts characters to strings.

Syntax

TRANSLATE <c>  TO UPPER|LOWER CASE
|USING <r>.

The characters of the string <c> are converted into upper- or lowercase, or according to a substitution rule specified in <r>.

TRY

Introduces a TRY block.

Syntax

TRY.

Class-based exceptions can be handled using the CATCH statement, within the block ended with ENDTRY.

TYPE-POOL

Introduces a type group.

Syntax

TYPE-POOL <tpool>.

The first statement in a type group. This statement is not entered in the ABAP Editor, but is automatically generated by the Dictionary in the ABAP Workbench. A type group is an ABAP program that contains type definitions and constant declarations that can be used in several programs.

TYPE-POOLS

Declares the types and constants of a type group to a program.

Syntax

TYPE-POOLS <tpool>.

This statement allows you to use all the data types and constants defined in the type group <tpool> in your program.

TYPES for Single Field Types

Defines a single field type.

Syntax

TYPES <t>[(<length>)] [TYPE <type>|LIKE <obj>] [DECIMALS <dec>].

Defines the internal data type <t> in the program with length <len>, reference to the ABAP Dictionary type <type> or a data object <obj>, and, where appropriate, with <dec> decimal places.

Syntax

TYPES <t> TYPE REF TO <class>|<interface>.

Defines the internal data type <t> in the program with reference to the class <class> or the interface <interface>.

Syntax

TYPES <t> TYPE REF TO DATA|<type>.

Defines the internal data type <t> as a data reference to a data object.

 

TYPES for Complex Types

Defines complex types.

Syntax

TYPES: BEGIN OF <structure>,
…
<ti>…,
…
END OF <structure>.

Combines the data types <ti> to form the structure <structure>. You can address the individual components of a structure in a program using a hyphen between the structure name and the component name as follows: <structure>-<t i>.

Syntax

TYPES <t> TYPE|LIKE <tabkind> OF <linetype> [WITH <key>].

Defines the local data type <t> in the program as an internal table with the access type <tabkind>, the line type <linetype>, and the key <key>.

Syntax

TYPES <t> TYPE|LIKE RANGE OF <type>|<obj>.

Defines the internal data type <t> as a RANGES table. A RANGES table has the same data type as a selection table, but is not linked to input fields on a selection screen.

ULINE

Places horizontal lines in the display list.

Syntax

ULINE [AT [/][<pos>][(<len>)]].

Without additions, creates a new line on the current list and fills it with a horizontal line. The additions allow you to insert a line break and specify the starting position and length of the line.

UNPACK

Converts type P variables to type C.

Syntax

UNPACK <f> TO <g>.

Unpacks the packed field <f> and places it in the string <g> with leading zeros. This can be reversed with the PACK statement.

UPDATE

Changes entries in database tables.

Syntax

UPDATE <dbtab> SET <si> = <f>
|<si> = <s i> + <f>
|<si> = <s i> - <f> [WHERE <cond>].

The value in the column <si> is set to the value <f>, increases it by <f>, or decreases it by <f> for all lines selected. The WHERE clause specifies the lines that are changed. If you omit the WHERE clause, all lines are changed.

Syntax

UPDATE <dbtab> FROM <wa>.

UPDATE <dbtab> FROM TABLE <itab>.

This deletes the line that has the same primary key as the work area <wa>, or deletes all the lines in the database that have the same primary key as a line in the internal table <itab>. The work area <wa> or the lines of the internal table <itab> must have at least the same length and alignment as the lines of the database table.

WHEN

Introduces a statement block in a CASE control structure.

Syntax

WHEN <f1> [OR <f 2> OR…] | OTHERS.

The statement block following a WHEN statement is executed if the contents of the field <f> in the CASE statement are the same as those of one of the fields <f i >. Afterwards, the program carries on processing after the ENDCASE statement. The statement block after WHEN OTHERS statement is executed if the contents of <f> does not equal any of the <f i > contents.

WHILE

Introduces a loop.

Syntax

WHILE <logexp> [VARY <f> FROM <f1> NEXT <f2>].

Introduces a statement block that ends with ENDWHILE. The statement block between WHILE and ENDWHILE is repeated as long as the logical expression <logexp> is true, or until a termination statement such as EXIT or CHECK occurs. The VARY addition allows you to process fields the same distance apart in memory.

WINDOW

Displays a list as a modal dialog box.

Syntax

WINDOW STARTING AT <x1> <y1> [ENDING AT <x2> <y2>].

Only occurs in list processing. The current detail list is displayed as a modal dialog box. The top left-hand corner of the window is positioned at column <x1> and line <y1>. The bottom right-hand corner is positioned at column <x2> and line <y2> (if specified).

WRITE

Displays lists.

Syntax

WRITE [AT [/][<pos>][(<len>)]] <f> [AS CHECKBOX|SYMBOL|ICON|LINE]
[QUICKINFO <g>].
[<format>]

The contents of the field <f> are formatted according to their data type and displayed in the current list. . The additions before the field allow you to specify a line break, the starting position, and the length of the field. The additions after the field allow you to display checkboxes, symbols, icons, and lines. The <format> addition can contain various other formatting options. The QUICKINFO addition allows you to assign a tool tip <g> to the field.

WRITE TO

Assigns string values.

Syntax

WRITE <f1> TO <f2> [<format>].

Converts the contents of a data object <f1> to type C, and assigns the resulting string to the variable <f2>. You can use the same formatting options available in the WRITE statement



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