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ABAP


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SAP is a robust system, which gives many facilities in the form of Function Modules (FMs) for connecting to external systems or for use within the system. With a clever use of these FMs we can achieve a lot of things through ABAP code.

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

This article focuses on ways to send E-mails and SAP Mails using ABAP code.

First SAP Mail

A SAP mail is a mail internal to the SAP system. It is a very good forum to exchange information with other users. Using a SAP mail in ABAP code facilitates exchange of automatic messages at various stages of the business process. It is easy to use and saves many hassles involved in using workflows for exchanging messages.

The ABAP code to send a sap mail is built around the FM SO_OBJECT_SEND which has the following pattern.

call function 'SO_OBJECT_SEND'

exporting

* EXTERN_ADDRESS = ' '

* FOLDER_ID = ' '

* FORWARDER = ' '

* OBJECT_FL_CHANGE = ' '

* OBJECT_HD_CHANGE = ' '

* OBJECT_ID = ' '

* OBJECT_TYPE = ' '

* OUTBOX_FLAG = ' '

* OWNER = ' '

* STORE_FLAG = ' '

* DELETE_FLAG = ' '

* SENDER = ' '

* CHECK_ALREADY_SENT = ' '

importing

object_id_new =

sent_to_all =

tables

* OBJCONT =

* OBJHEAD =

* OBJPARA =

* OBJPARB =

receivers =

* PACKING_LIST =

* ATT_CONT =

* ATT_HEAD =

* NOTE_TEXT =

exceptions

active_user_not_exist = 1

communication_failure = 2

component_not_available = 3

folder_not_exist = 4

folder_no_authorization = 5

forwarder_not_exist = 6

note_not_exist = 7

object_not_exist = 8

object_not_sent = 9

object_no_authorization = 10

object_type_not_exist = 11

operation_no_authorization = 12

owner_not_exist = 13

parameter_error = 14

substitute_not_active = 15

substitute_not_defined = 16

system_failure = 17

too_much_receivers = 18

user_not_exist = 19

x_error = 20

others = 21.


Import Parameters Name and Description Field name Field function
Object_hd_change (structure)

Contains the process to be done when SAP mail is marked for execution.

When the Execute Icon in the SAP mail is clicked the corresponding object is executed

vmtyp ‘D’ for dialog module

‘F’ for function module

‘R’ for report

‘T’ for transaction

‘U’ for transaction with export

  Acnam Name of the object which is to be executed, like name of transaction/report
  Skips ‘X’ to execute first screen in background
  Objsns Indicates sensitivity of the object.

‘P’ for private object

‘F’ for functional object

‘O’ for confidential object

‘C’ for company confidential object

Sensitivity level is restricted to ‘O’ for documents in shared folders

  Objla Language of the document

‘E’ for English

sy-langu for system language

  Objnam Name of the document
  Objdes Short description (Title) of the document
  Objsrt Name of the sort field. This is used to group documents based on certain criteria
Object_type

Type of document to be sent with mail

  ‘RAW’ for raw text (default)

‘DOC’ for word file

‘XLS’ for excel file

All classes can be used except for folders (‘FOL’) and distribution lists (‘DLI’)

Outbox_flag   ‘X’ to indicate that mail should also be stored in outbox of the user after sending (default ‘ ‘)
Owner   Sap login of the user responsible for transmission
Table Parameters Name and Description Field Name Field function
Objcont

Table to hold the body of the mail

Line Text lines up to 255 characters
Objhead

Table to hold number of lines in the body of the mail, i.e size of the table in lines

Line Text lines up to 255 characters
Objpara

Table to hold the set/get parameters to be transferred to the processing element

Name Name of the parameter. Only first three characters are used
  Option Not used
  Low Value of the parameter in name
  High Not used
Objparb

Table to hold information for mails to which a certain processing type is assigned. For a report or transaction with transfer of values to global memory, the table has to contain the parameters with relevant values. The memory id is taken from the first row. For a FM or dialog module, data in table will be transferred as table parameter msgdial

Name For report or transaction with transfer of values to global memory, the field for first row should hold the name of the memory id used for export and the other rows should hold the parameter names. For FM or dialog module this field should hold the values as per the usage of the module
  Value For report or transaction with transfer of values to global memory, the field for first row should remain empty and the other rows should hold values of the parameters. For FM or dialog module this field should hold the values as per the usage of the module
Receivers

Table to hold recipient details

Recnam SAP login of the recipient. Append all the recipients to this table
  Sndcp X for sending mail as a copy
  Sndex X for sending as express document. This will prompt a logged on recipient saying that he or she has received an express mail
  Recesc ‘B’ for SAP user

‘E’ for external email address

‘U’ for unix address

Export Parameters Name and Description Field name Field function
Object_id_new

Contains object id of document created during send process

   
Sent_to_all

X indicates that document was sent to all recipients. Flag is not activated if sending fails in one or more cases

   
Main Exceptions Name and Description Description
Too_much_receivers Number of recipients is greater than number for which sender is authorised to send
Object_not_sent Document was not delivered to any of the recipients
Object_not_exist Document class specified does not exist or cannot be sent
Object_no_authorisation Document could not be sent as one of the required authorisations does not exist
Parameter_error Invalid combination of parameter values transferred to FM
X_error Internal error occurred


Once all the parameters and table interfaces are properly filled, call the function module to send the SAP mail to the recipient inbox.

Care should be taken to report the status of execution of the function module to the user using one of the exceptions defined (refer function module pattern above)

Though SAP mail is a very robust method of interacting with users within SAP system, it is always good to receive email in Microsoft inbox. This also works like an additional notification to users in case they do not check SAP mail regularly. The next article covers sending E-mails using ABAP.

Sending Email to a non-SAP system:

Though SAP mail is a very robust method of interacting with users within SAP system, it is always good to receive email in Microsoft inbox. This also works like an additional notification to users in case they do not check SAP mail regularly.

Sending an email to the Microsoft Inbox is a way of interacting with a non SAP system through ABAP code and hence is very interesting. A fair knowledge of UNIX shell scripting is assumed here.

The ABAP code to send an email to Microsoft inbox revolves around following UNIX script

Echo "From:" "<"$1">" >

Echo "To:" "<"$2">" >>

Echo "Subject:" "<"$3">" >>

Cat $4 >>

Uuencode $5 $6 >>

Cat | /usr/sbin/sendmail –f $fraddr $toaddr

(Note : the commands in the above script can be case sensitive. Check the actual case on the unix installation in question)

Let us understand the various parts of the above script.

$1 = Sender email address

$2 = Recipient email address

$3 = Subject of the email

$4 = Path of unix server file having email body

Form email body as an internal table in ABAP program, download it to a unix server file

$5 = Path of unix server file to be sent as email attachment

$6 = Name to be given to the attachment (like test1.doc, test1.xls). The corresponding Microsoft icon

will be shown in the email for the type of file attached ( Word document, excel document etc)

The script builds a temporary file and pipes the file to the sendmail command to achieve the mission.

This script can be invoked from SAP to send the mail to the intended recipient. Store this small script on the unix server. (Assume script name is sndmail )

To do this we should define a link in the SAP system between a customized command and this unix script.

The FM to define a customized command in SAP system has the following pattern.

call function 'SXPG_CALL_SYSTEM'

exporting

commandname =

PARAMETERS = ' '

importing

status =

tables

exec_protocol =

exceptions

no_permission = 1

command_not_found = 2

parameters_too_long = 3

security_risk = 4

wrong_check_call_interface = 5

program_start_error = 6

program_termination_error = 7

x_error = 8

parameter_expected = 9

too_many_parameters = 10

illegal_command = 11

others = 12.
 
Import Parameters Name and Description Field name Field function
Commandname

Name of unix shell script or command to be executed by SAP

  Name of unix shell script to be invoked
Parameters   The parameters to be sent to unix shell script ($1, $2 etc). Send parameters as a concatenated string separated by space and length not exceeding 128 characters

For eg in UNIX environment the above shell script would be executed as

Sndmail sender@a.com receiver@b.com Trial /home/test.doc testmail.

We will be simulating this command using the FM from SAP system

Table Parameters Name and Description Field Name Field function
Exec_protocol (structure)

Table to get messages from unix server after shell script is executed

Length Length of the message from external program i.e unix
  Message Log message from external program i.e unix
Export Parameters Name and Description Field name Field function
Status

Contains the status of execution of external program

  Scheduling status of external program i.e unix


Once the above FM is invoked with the necessary parameters the unix program sendmail will send a mail to the inbox of the recipient in Microsoft.

The restriction on the parameter string length of 128 characters can be removed to make way for very long email addresses and subjects. Build the parameters into an internal table and download it as a file on the unix server. Instead of passing each parameter individually, pass the unix server path of this file as the parameter to the unix shell script (sndmail mentioned above). Modify the shell script to read every line of this parameter file as variables to be used in the shell script.

REPORT ZTSAPMAIL.

DATA: X_OBJECT_TYPE LIKE SOOD-OBJTP.

DATA: BEGIN OF X_OBJECT_HD_CHANGE.

INCLUDE STRUCTURE SOOD1.

DATA: END OF X_OBJECT_HD_CHANGE.

DATA: BEGIN OF X_OBJCONT OCCURS 10.

INCLUDE STRUCTURE SOLI.

DATA: END OF X_OBJCONT.

DATA: BEGIN OF X_OBJHEAD OCCURS 0.

INCLUDE STRUCTURE SOLI.

DATA: END OF X_OBJHEAD.

DATA: BEGIN OF RAW_HEAD.

INCLUDE STRUCTURE SORH.

DATA: END OF RAW_HEAD.

DATA: BEGIN OF X_RECEIVERS OCCURS 0.

INCLUDE STRUCTURE SOOS1.

DATA: END OF X_RECEIVERS.

PARAMETERS: RECEIVER LIKE X_RECEIVERS-RECNAM. " Name

*BUILD MESSAGE HEADER

MOVE 'Sort field goes here' TO X_OBJECT_HD_CHANGE-OBJSRT. " Sort field

MOVE 'Name of the object goes here' TO X_OBJECT_HD_CHANGE-OBJNAM. " Name

MOVE 'Document title goes here' TO X_OBJECT_HD_CHANGE-OBJDES. " Title

MOVE 'F' TO X_OBJECT_HD_CHANGE-OBJSNS. " Functional OBJECT

MOVE 'E' TO X_OBJECT_HD_CHANGE-OBJLA. " Language

* Object type of the new document

MOVE 'RAW' TO X_OBJECT_TYPE.

CLEAR X_OBJCONT.

MOVE 'Contents of mail' TO X_OBJCONT-LINE.

APPEND X_OBJCONT.

CLEAR X_OBJCONT-LINE. APPEND X_OBJCONT.

MOVE 'More contents' TO X_OBJCONT-LINE.

APPEND X_OBJCONT.

MOVE 'Still more contents'

to x_objcont-line.

APPEND X_OBJCONT.

MOVE ' ' TO X_OBJCONT-LINE.

APPEND X_OBJCONT.

* Specific header (Dependent on the object type, here RAW)

REFRESH X_OBJHEAD.

DESCRIBE TABLE X_OBJCONT LINES RAW_HEAD-RAWSIZ.

MOVE RAW_HEAD TO X_OBJHEAD.

APPEND X_OBJHEAD.

*RECEIVERS table

CLEAR X_RECEIVERS.

REFRESH X_RECEIVERS.

MOVE RECEIVER TO X_RECEIVERS-RECNAM. " Name

MOVE 'B' TO X_RECEIVERS-RECESC. " Receiver type

MOVE 'X' TO X_RECEIVERS-SNDCP. " Send as a copy

MOVE 'X' TO X_RECEIVERS-SNDEX. " EXPRESS DOCUMENT

APPEND X_RECEIVERS.

CALL FUNCTION 'SO_OBJECT_SEND'

EXPORTING

* folder_id = 'OUTBOX'

* forwarder = x_forwarder

* object_fl_change = x_object_fl_change

OBJECT_HD_CHANGE = X_OBJECT_HD_CHANGE

* object_id = x_object_id

OBJECT_TYPE = X_OBJECT_TYPE

OUTBOX_FLAG = 'X'

OWNER = SY-UNAME

* store_flag = x_store_flag

* importing

* object_id_new = x_object_id_new

* sent_to_all = x_sent_to_all "May need to use

TABLES

OBJCONT = X_OBJCONT

OBJHEAD = X_OBJHEAD

* objpara = x_objpara

* objparb = x_objparb

RECEIVERS = X_RECEIVERS.
 



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