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Syntax-3


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IF

Conditional branch.

Introduces a new branch.

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

Syntax

IF <logexp>.

Opens an IF control structure that ends with an ENDIF statement. The system evaluates the logical expression <logexp>, and processes different statement blocks depending on the result.

IMPORT

Imports data clusters.

Syntax

IMPORT… <fi> [TO <g i>]… | (<itab>)
FROM  MEMORY
| DATABASE <dbtab>(<ar>) ID(<key>)
| SHARED BUFFER <dbtab>(<ar>) ID(<key>).

The data objects <fi> or <g i>, or the data objects in the internal table <itab> are read from data clusters, either in the cross-program ABAP memory of the current internal session; in a cluster database table <dbtab>; or in the cross-transaction application buffer of the table <dbtab> and written to the variables <f i> and <g i>.

IMPORT DIRECTORY

Creates the directory of a data cluster from a cluster database.

Syntax

IMPORT DIRECTORY INTO <itab>
FROM DATABASE <dbtab>(<ar>)
Id <key>.

Writes a directory of the data objects belonging to a data cluster in the cluster database <dbtab> to the internal table <dirtab>.

In the third variant, the table <itab> contains a directory of the objects stored using EXPORT TO DATABASE.

INCLUDE

Inserts an include program in another program.

Syntax

INCLUDE <incl>.

Has the same effect as copying the source code of the include program <incl> into the program. Include programs are not loaded at runtime, but are expanded when the program is generated. Include programs must have the program type I.

INCLUDE TYPE|STRUCTURE

Includes a structure within another.

Syntax

INCLUDE TYPE <t>|STRUCTURE <s> [AS <name> [RENAMING WITH SUFFIX <suffix>]].

Within a structure declared using TYPES|DATA BEGIN OF, copies a structured datatype <t>, or a structure <s> already available as a data object, as part of the structure declaration. The AS addition lets you address the individual components using the name <name>. The RENAMING addition lets you append a suffix, <suffix>, to <name>, so that you can copy the same structure several times.

INITIALIZATION

Event keywords for defining event blocks for reporting events.

Syntax

INITIALIZATION.

Only occurs in executable programs. The ABAP runtime environment triggers the INITIALIZATION event before the selection screen is processed, at which point the corresponding event block is processed.

INSERT for Database Tables

Inserts entries from database tables.

Syntax

INSERT <dbtab> FROM <wa>.

INSERT <dbtab> FROM TABLE <itab> [ACCEPTING DUPLICATE KEYS].

Inserts one line from the work area <wa> or several lines from the internal table <itab> into the database table <dbtab>. The ACCEPTING DUPLICATE KEYS addition prevents a runtime error from occurring if two entries have the same primary key. Instead, it merely discards the duplicate

INSERT for Field Groups

Defines the structure of field groups for extract datasets.

Syntax

INSERT <f1>… <f n> INTO <fg>.

Includes the fields <fi> in the field group <fg>, thus defining a line structure for an extract dataset.

INSERT for any Internal Table

Inserts lines from internal tables of any type.

Syntax

INSERT <line>|LINES OF <jtab> [FROM <n1>] [TO <n 2>]
INTO TABLE <itab>
[ASSIGNING <FS> | REFERENCE INTO <dref>].

Inserts a line <line> or a set of lines from the internal table <jtab> into the internal table <itab>. If <jtab> is an index table, you can use the FROM and TO additions to restrict the lines inserted. If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol <FS> refers to the inserted line or the relevant data reference is stored in <dref> after the statement.

INSERT for Index Tables

Inserts entries in index tables.

Syntax

INSERT <line>|LINES OF <jtab> [FROM <n1>] [TO <n 2>]
INTO <itab> [INDEX <idx>]
[ASSIGNING <FS> | REFERENCE INTO <dref>].

Inserts a line <line> or a set of lines from the internal table <jtab> into the internal table <itab>before the line with the index <idx>. If <jtab> is an index table, you can use the FROM and TO additions to restrict the lines inserted. If you omit the INDEX addition, you can only use the statement within a LOOP. A new line containing values is inserted before the current line. If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol <FS> refers to the inserted line or the relevant data reference is stored in <dref> after the statement.

INSERT for Programs

Inserts ABAP programs into the program library.

Syntax

INSERT REPORT <prog> FROM <itab>.

The lines of the internal table <itab> are added to the program library as the program <prog>.

INTERFACE

Declares a interface in ABAP Objects.

Syntax

INTERFACE <ifac> [DEFERRED]
[LOAD].

Introduces an interface <interface>. The definition ends with ENDINTERFACE and contains the declaration of all the components of the interface. The DEFERRED addition makes the interface known to the program before it is defined. The LOAD addition loads an interface explicitly from the Class Library.

INTERFACES

Implementation or nesting of an interface in ABAP Objects.

Syntax

INTERFACES <ifac>
[ABSTRACT|FINAL METHODS <meth1> <meth 2> | ALL METHODS ABSTRACT|FINAL ]
[DATA VALUES <attr1> = <val 1> <attr 2> = <val 2> …]

MESSAGE

Displays a message.

Syntax

MESSAGE <xnnn> [WITH <f1>… <f4>] [RAISING <except>].

MESSAGE ID <mid> TYPE <x> NUMBER <nnn>.

MESSAGE <xnnn>(<mid>).

Displays the message <nnn> of message class <mid> as message type <x>. The message type specifies how the message is displayed, and how the program reacts. The WITH addition allows you to fill placeholders in the message text. The RAISING addition in function modules and methods allows you to terminate the procedure and trigger the exception <exception>.

MESSAGE <msg> TYPE <x>

This variant display a string, <msg>, directly as a message of the type <x>.

METHOD

Introduces the implementation of a method in a class.

Syntax

METHOD <meth>.

Only occurs in the implementation part of classes. Introduces a statement block that ends with ENDMETHOD. You do not have to specify any interface parameters, since these are defined in the method declaration.

METHODS

Declares methods in classes and interfaces.

Syntax

METHODS <meth> [FOR EVENT <evt> OF <cif>]
IMPORTING… [VALUE(]<ii>[)] TYPE <t> [OPTIONAL]…
EXPORTING… [VALUE(]<ei>[)] TYPE <t> [OPTIONAL]…
CHANGING … [VALUE(]<ci>[)] TYPE <t> [OPTIONAL]…
RETURNING VALUE(<r>)
EXCEPTIONS       … <ei>…
[ABSTRACT]
[FINAL]
[REDEFINITION].

You declare a method <met> in the definition part of a class or in the definition of an interface: The IMPORTING, EXPORTING, CHANGING, RETURNING, and EXCEPTIONS additions define the parameter interface and exceptions of the method. The ABSTRACT addition defines an abstract class, which cannot be implemented in the same class. The function of a non-abstract method must be implemented using METHOD. The FINAL addition prevents you from redefining the method in subclasses. The REDEFINITION addition redefines a method of a superclass. The FOR EVENT addition declares an event handler method for the <evt> event of a class or interface.

MODIFY for Database Tables

Inserts or changes lines in database tables.

Syntax

MODIFY <dbtab> FROM <wa>.

MODIFY <dbtab> FROM TABLE <itab>.

Works like INSERT for database tables, if there is not yet a line in the table with the same primary key. Works like UPDATE if a line already exists with the same primary key.

MODIFY for any Internal Table

Changes the content of lines in internal tables of any type.

Syntax

MODIFY TABLE <itab> FROM <wa> [TRANSPORTING <f1> <f 2>…]
[ASSIGNING <FS> | REFERENCE INTO <dref>].

Copies the work area <wa> into the line of the internal table with the same table key as <wa>. If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol <FS> refers to the modified line or the relevant data reference is stored in <dref> after the statement. You can use the TRANSPORTING addition to specify the exact components that you want to change.

MODIFY <itab> FROM <wa> TRANSPORTING <f1> <f 2>… WHERE <logexp>.

Copies the work area <wa> into the line of the internal table for which the logical expression is true. In each comparison of the logical expression, the first operand must be a component of the line structure.

MODIFY for Index Tables

Changes the content of lines in index tables.

Syntax

MODIFY <itab> FROM <wa> [INDEX <idx>] [TRANSPORTING <f1> <f 2>…]
[ASSIGNING <FS> | REFERENCE INTO <dref>].

Copies the work area <wa> into the line of the internal table with the index <idx>. If you omit the INDEX addition, you can only use the statement within a LOOP. In this case, you change the current loop line If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol <FS> refers to the modified line or the relevant data reference is stored in <dref> after the statement.

NEW-LINE

Inserts a line break in a list.

Syntax

NEW-LINE [NO-SCROLLING|SCROLLING].

Positions the list display after the page header. The NO-SCROLLING addition prevents the new line from scrolling horizontally. SCROLLING resets the NO-SCROLLING addition.

NEW-PAGE

Inserts a page break in a list.

Syntax

NEW-PAGE [NO-TITLE|WITH-TITLE]
[NO-HEADING|WITH-HEADING]
[LINE-COUNT]
[LINE-SIZE]
[PRINT ON|OFF].

Generates a new page and positions the list output after the page header. The additions control how the page header is displayed, the length and width of the page, and the print output.

NODES

Declares an interface work area.

Syntax

NODES <node>.

Declares a variable with the same data type and the same name as a data type from the ABAP Dictionary. Structures in main programs and subroutines declared using NODES use a common data area. This statement is used in conjunction with logical databases.

ON CHANGE

Introduces a new branch.

Syntax

ON CHANGE OF <f> [OR <f1> OR <f2>…].

Opens an ON control structure, which ends with ENDON. The statement block is executed whenever the contents of the field <f> or one of the other fields <fi> has changed since the statement was last executed.

OPEN CURSOR

Opens a database cursor.

Syntax

OPEN CURSOR [WITH HOLD] <c> FOR SELECT      <result>
FROM      <source>
[WHERE    <condition>]
[GROUP BY <fields>]
[HAVING   <cond>]
[ORDER BY <fields>].

Opens a cursor <c> with type CURSOR for a SELECT statement. You can use all the clauses of the SELECT statement apart from the INTO clause. The INTO clause is set in the FETCH statement. If you use the WITH HOLD addition, the cursor is not closed when a database commit occurs.

OPEN DATASET

Opens a file.

Syntax

OPEN DATASET <dsn>
[FOR INPUT|OUTPUT|APPENDING|UPDATE]
[IN BINARY MODE
|IN TEXT MODE [ENCODING (DEFAULT|UTF-8|NON-UNICODE)]
|IN LEGACY BINARY MODE [(BIG|LITTLE) ENDIAN] [CODE PAGE <cp>]
|IN LEGACY TEXT MODE [(BIG|LITTLE) ENDIAN] [CODE PAGE <cp>]]
[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER <rc>]
[IGNORING CONVERSION ERRORS]
[AT POSITION <pos>]
[TYPE <c>]
[MESSAGE <mess>]
[FILTER <filt>].

Opens a file <dsn> on the application server. The additions after FOR specify how the file is read or written. The MODE additions specifies how content is interpreted (as characters or in binary form). The ENCODING addition specifies the character representation in the file. The LEGACY MODE allows you to read files that were written before Release 6.10. REPLACEMENT CHARACTERS and CONVERSION ERRORS are used to handle errors during character set conversion. AT POSITION specifies the position in the file. MESSAGE specifies where system messages are stored. FILTER lets you specify operating system commands.

OVERLAY

Overlays one string with another:

Syntax

OVERLAY <c1> WITH <c2> [ONLY <str>].

This statement overlays all positions in field <c1> containing letters which occur in <str> with the contents of <c2>. <c2> remains unchanged. If you omit ONLY <str>, all positions of <c1> containing spaces are overwritten.



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