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ABAP
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ABAP Syntax 1
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ABAP Syntax 3
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ABAP Query
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Syntax-1


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Syntax

ADD for single fieldsAdds two single fields.

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

Syntax

ADD <n> TO <m>.

The contents of <n> are added to the contents of <m> and the results are stored in <m>. This is equivalent to: <m> = <m> + <n>.

ADD for field sequences

Adds sequences of fields in storage.

Syntax

ADD <n1> THEN <n2> UNTIL <nz> GIVING <m>.

ADD <n1> THEN <n2> UNTIL <nz> ACCORDING TO <sel> GIVING <m>.

ADD <n1> THEN <n2> UNTIL <nz> TO <m>.

ADD <n1> FROM <m1> TO <mz> GIVING <m>.

If <n1>, <n2>,…, <nz> is a sequence of fields with the same distance to one another and if they have the same type and length, these fields are added and the result is stored in <m>. Different variants allow you to limit fields to a subsequence, to include <m> in the sum, and to perform the operation on a sequence of fields that directly follow one another.

ADD-CORRESPONDING

Adds subfields of structures.

Syntax

ADD-CORRESPONDING <struc1> TO <struc2>.

All the subfields of the structures <struc1> and <struc2> having the same name are added and the results are stored in <struc2>.

ALIASES

Defines class-specific alias names for an interface component in ABAP objects.

Syntax

ALIASES <alias> FOR <intf~comp>.

<alias> is defined within a class or interface as synonymous with the interface component <intf~comp>.

APPEND

Appends a line or multiple lines to the end of an index table.

Syntax

APPEND <line>|LINES OF <jtab> TO <itab>
[ASSIGNING <FS> | REFERENCE INTO <dref>].

A line <line> or multiple lines of an internal table <jtab> are appended to index table <itab>. If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol <FS> refers to the appended line or the relevant data reference is stored in <dref> after the statement.

ASSIGN

Assigns a field to a field symbol.

Syntax

ASSIGN <f> [INCREMENT <n>] TO <FS>
[CASTING [TYPE <t>|LIKE <f>] [DECIMALS <d>]] [RANGE <r>].

Data object <f> is assigned to field symbol <FS>. <FS> now points to the data object. After the addition INCREMENT <n>, the storage area that is offset <n> times by a length of <f> starting with <f> is assigned to the field symbol. Pointed brackets are part of the syntax for field symbol names. The CASTING addition permits you to cast data objects when assigning field symbols. The RANGE addition defines the storage area in which either offset/length accesses or the INCREMENT addition are allowed. In Unicode programs, standard access is only allowed within the field limits of <f>, but this can be extended with RANGE. In non-Unicode programs, standard access is possible up to the boundary of the data segment and can be limited with RANGE.

Syntax

ASSIGN <dref>->* TO <FS> [CASTING … ].

Dereferencing of the data reference in <dref>. The data object to which the data reference refers is assigned to field symbol <FS>.

AT for event blocks

Syntax

AT SELECTION-SCREEN…

AT LINE-SELECTION.

AT USER-COMMAND.

User actions on a selection screen or on a list trigger certain events in the ABAP runtime environment. The event keywords define event blocks that are called when events occur.

AT for group change

Syntax

AT NEW <f>.

AT END OF <f>.

AT FIRST.

AT LAST.

AT <fg>.

The statements are used to process group levels within a loop using an extract dataset or an internal table. They introduce statement blocks that must be closed with ENDAT. The statements between AT and ENDAT are only executed if the corresponding group change occurred.

AUTHORITY-CHECK

Checks user authorization.

Syntax

AUTHORITY-CHECK OBJECT <object> ID <name1> FIELD <f1>
ID <name2> FIELD <f2>

ID <name10> FIELD <f10>.

There is a check if the program user has all the authorizations defined in authorization object <object>. <name1>,…, <name10> are the authorization fields of the authorization object. <f1>,… <f1>, …, <f10> are data objects of the program. The value of the data objects is checked against the authorization fields.

BACK

Relative position of the output in a list.

Syntax

BACK.

Positions the list output either in the first column of the first line following the page header of the current page or in connection with RESERVE in the first column of the first line of a line block.

BREAK-POINT

Calls the Debugger.

Syntax

BREAK-POINT.

Interrupts execution of the program and goes to debugging mode. Is used as a test help. Normal program processing is interrupted when this statement is reached and the system goes to a debugger.

CALL CUSTOMER-FUNCTION

Calls the customer function modules.

Syntax

CALL CUSTOMER-FUNCTION <func>…

Similar to CALL FUNCTION. The function modules must be programmed and activated within the customer’s modification concept.

CALL FUNCTION

Calls the function modules.

Syntax

CALL FUNCTION <func> [EXPORTING… fi = a i… ]
[IMPORTING… fi = a i… ]
[CHANGING… fi = a i… ]
[TABLES… fi = a i… ]
[EXCEPTIONS… ei = r i… ]
[DESTINATION <dest>]
[IN UPDATE TASK]
[STARTING NEW TASK]
[IN BACKGOUND TASK].

The program calls either a function module in the same R/3 System, or one from an external system, depending on the variant of the statement you use. You can call update modules when processing transactions. You can also call functions asynchronously. The other additions are used to specify actual parameters for the parameter interface for the function module, <func>, and to handle exceptions.

CALL DIALOG

Calls a dialog module.

Syntax

CALL DIALOG <dialog> [AND SKIP FIRST SCREEN]
[EXPORTING… fi = a i… ]
[IMPORTING… fi = a i… ]
[USING itab].

Calls the dialog module <dial>. A dialog module is an ABAP program with a sequence of screens. It does not have to be started using a transaction code, or run in the same SAP LUW, like the calling program. The additions are used to skip the initial screen in the sequence and specify actual parameters for the parameter interface of the dialog module.

CALL METHOD

Calls a method in ABAP Objects.

Syntax

CALL METHOD <meth> [EXPORTING… <ii> =.<f i>… ]
[IMPORTING… <ei> =.<g i>… ]
[CHANGING… <ci> =.<f i>… ]
[RECEIVINGr = h ]
[EXCEPTIONS… <ei> = r i… ]
[PARAMETER-TABLE <ptab>]
[EXCEPTION-TABLE <etab>].

[CALL METHOD]<meth>( … ).

Calls a method <meth>. The additions are used to specify actual parameters for the parameter interface for the function module and to handle exceptions. The last two additions pass parameters dynamically in a dynamic method call. Alternatively, if the method is called statically, the parameters can be specified using parenthesis notation (as you can when specifying parameters in a CALL METHOD statement). You can also use functional methods with this syntax in operand positions.

CALL METHOD OF

Calls a method in OLE2 Automation.

Syntax

CALL METHOD OF <obj> <m>.

Calls the method, <m>, of the OLE2 Automation Object, <obj>.

CALL SCREEN

Calls a screen sequence.

Syntax

CALL SCREEN <scr>
[STARTING AT <X1> <Y1>]
[ENDING AT <X2> <Y2>].

Calls the sequence of screens that begins with the screen <scr>. All the screens in the screen sequence belong to the current ABAP program. The screen sequence ends when the program reaches the screen numbered 0. The additions let you call a single screen in a new window.

CALL SELECTION-SCREEN

Calls a selection screen.

Syntax

CALL SELECTION-SCREEN <scr>
[STARTING AT <x1> <y 1>]
[ENDING AT <x2> <y 2>].

Calls a selection screen defined in an ABAP program. The selection screen is processed in the program in the AT SELECTION-SCREEN event. The additions let you call a selection screen in a new window.

CALL TRANSACTION

Call a transaction.

Syntax

CALL TRANSACTION <tcod>
[AND SKIP FIRST SCREEN]
[USING <itab>].

Calls the transaction <tcod> after having received data from the calling program. At the end of the transaction that has been called, the system returns to the statement following the call in the calling report. The additions are used to skip the initial screen in the sequence or to pass a batch input table to the transaction.

CASE

Conditional branch.

Syntax

CASE <f>.

Opens a CASE control structure that ends with an ENDCASE statement. The CASE control structure allows you to control which statement blocks (introduced by WHEN) are processed, based on the contents of a data object.

DATA with Reference to Known Data Types

Declares variables with a previously-declared data type

Syntax

DATA <f>… [TYPE <type>|LIKE <obj>]… [VALUE <val>].

Declares a variable <f> with the fully-defined data type <type> or the same data type as another data object <obj>. The data type <type> can be D, F, I, T, a type defined locally in the program using the TYPES statement, or a type from the ABAP Dictionary. The data object <obj> is a data object or line of an internal table that has already been defined. The VALUE addition specifies a starting value.

DATA with Reference to Generic Data Types

Declares variables by completing the description of a generic type

Syntax

DATA <f>[(<length>)] TYPE <type> [DECIMALS <d>]… [VALUE <val>].

DATA <f> TYPE <itab>.

The data type <type> can be C, N, P, X, STRING or XSTRING. The <length> option sets the field length. If you omit it, the field length is set to the appropriate initial value. If <type> is P, you can specify the number of decimal places using the DECIMALS <d> addition. If you omit this, the number of decimal places is set to 0. If you do not use the TYPE addition, the system uses the default predefined generic type C.

Syntax

DATA <f> TYPE <itab>.

The data type <itab> is a standard internal table with generic key. The default key is automatically used in the DATA statement.

DATA, Creating an Associated Data Type

Declares variables with data types that only exist as an attribute of the variable.

Syntax

DATA <f> TYPE REF TO <class>|<interface>.

The variable <f> is defined as an object reference variable for the class <class> or interface <interface>.

Syntax

DATA <f> TYPE REF TO DATA|<type>.

Declares the variable <f> as a data reference variable for a data object.

Syntax

DATA: BEGIN OF <structure>,

<fi>…,

END OF <structure>.

Combines the variables <fi> to form the structure <structure>. The individual variables within a structure are addressed in the program with a hyphen between the structure name and component name as follows: <structure>-<f i>.

Syntax

DATA <f> TYPE|LIKE <tabkind> OF <linetype> WITH <key>.

The variable <f> is declared as an internal table with the table kind <tabkind>, line type <linetype>, and key <key>.

Syntax

DATA <f> TYPE|LIKE RANGE OF <type>|<obj>.

Declares the variable <f> as a RANGES table. A RANGES table has the same data type as a selection table, but is not linked to input fields on a selection screen.

DATA statement for Shared Data Areas

Declares shared data areas in a program.

Syntax

DATA: BEGIN OF COMMON PART <c>,
<f i>. ..
END OF COMMON PART.

The variables <fi> are assigned to a data area <c>, which can be defined in more than one program. These data areas use the same memory addresses for all programs that are loaded into the same internal session.

DEFINE

Defines a macro.

Syntax

DEFINE <macro>.

Introduces the definition of the macro <macro>. Each macro must consist of complete ABAP statement and be concluded with the END-OF-DEFINITION statement.

DELETE for Files

Deletes files on the application server

Syntax

DELETE DATASET <dsn>.

Deletes the file <dsn> from the file system of the application server.

DELETE for Database Table Entries

Deletes entries from database tables.

Syntax

DELETE FROM <dbtab> WHERE <cond>.

All of the lines in the database table that satisfy the conditions in the WHERE clause are deleted.

Syntax

DELETE <dbtab> FROM <wa>.

DELETE <dbtab> FROM TABLE <itab>.

This deletes the line that has the same primary key as the work area <wa>, or deletes all the lines in the database that have the same primary key as a line in the internal table <itab>. The work area <wa> or the lines of the internal table <itab> must have at least the same length as the work area of the database table.



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Keywords:SAP ABAP, SAP-BUSINESS-WAREHOUSE, SAP ABAP Tutorial, SAP ABAP tutorial, SAP ABAP tutorial pdf, history of SAP Basis, learn SAP ABAP

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