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TCP/IP Addressing

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TCP/IP uses 32 bits, or 4 numbers between 0 and 255 to address a computer.



IP Addresses

  1. Internet Protocol, IP is an address of other network device or a computer on a network using IP or TCP/IP .


  2. A D V E R T I S E M E N T
  3. For Example, the number "166.70.10.23" is the example of such an address.



  4. These addresses are similar to addresses that help data reach its appropriate destination on a network and used on houses.



  5. There are five classes of available IP ranges: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E, while only A, B and C are commonly used. Each class allows for a range of valid IP addresses. Below is a listing of these addresses.



Note:

  • Each computer must have an IP address before it can connect to Internet.

  • Each IP packet must have an address before it can be sent to the another computer.

  • In the TCP/IP configuration settings,when you configure the TCP/IP protocol on a Microsoft Windows computer, an IP address, subnet mask, and usually a default gateway are required.




  • The following table describes the different classes of IP addressing

    Class Address Range Supports
    Class A 1.0.0.1 to 126.255.255.254 Supports 16 million hosts on each of 127 networks.
    Class B 128.1.0.1 to 191.255.255.254 Supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks.
    Class C 192.0.1.1 to 223.255.254.254 Supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks.
    Class D 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 Reserved for multicast groups.
    Class E 240.0.0.0 to 254.255.255.254 Reserved.

    Class A

    1. Intended for a small number of networks that had the large number of computers (hosts) attached.



    2. Class A IP Address have a value in the range 1...126 as the first octet and the values 0 and 127 are not available because they have special uses.



    3. Class A addresses use the first octet to identify the network which means that 126 addresses are usable, each of which can support the 16,777,216 computers (hosts).



    Class B

    1. Intended for the some networks that had an intermediate number of computers (hosts) attached.



    2. Class B IP Addresses have a value in the range of 128...191 as the first octet.



    3. Class B addresses use the first two octets to identify the network which means that 16,320 addresses are usable and each of which can support 65,536 computers (hosts).



    Class C

    1. Intended for a large number of the networks that would have a small (relatively) number of computers (hosts) attached.



    2. Class C IP Addresses have a value in the range 192...223 as the first octet.



    3. Class C addresses use the first three octets to identify the network which means that 2,080,800 addresses (networks) are possible and each of which can support 254 computers (hosts).



    Class D

    1. Intended to enable the multicasting in an IP address.



    2. A multicast address is a unique network address that directs packets w/ that destination address to predefined groups of IP addresses.



    3. Therefore, a single station can simultaneous transmit a single stream of datagrams to the multiple recipients.



    4. First four bits must be 1110 and first octet: 11100000 to 11101111 (dec 224 to 239 (1st octet 224 to 239 is class D) ).



    Class E

    1. IETF reserves addresses in this class for its own research only.



    2. No Class E addresses have been released for the use on the internet.



    3. First four bits of a class E address: 1111 and range 11110000 to 11111111 (dec 240 to 255).






    TCP/IP Addressing

    TCP/IP supports three classes of Internet addresses: Class A, Class B, and Class C. The different classes of Internet addresses are designated by how the 32 bits of the address are allocated. The particular address class a network is assigned depends on the size of the network.

    An IP Address Contains 4 Numbers.

    This is your IP address: 203.101.50.14

    TCP/IP uses 4 numbers to address a computer. Each computer must have a unique 4 number address.

    The numbers are always between 0 and 255. Addresses are normally written as four numbers separated by a period like this: 192.168.1.50.

    IP addresses are normally expressed in dotted-decimal format, with four numbers separated by periods, such as 192.168.123.132. To understand how subnet masks are used to distinguish between hosts, networks, and subnetworks, examine an IP address in binary notation.

    For example, the dotted-decimal IP address 192.168.123.132 is (in binary notation) the 32 bit number 110000000101000111101110000100. This number may be hard to make sense of, so divide it into four parts of eight binary digits.

    These eight bit sections are known as octets. The example IP address, then, becomes 11000000.10101000.01111011.10000100. This number only makes a little more sense, so for most uses, convert the binary address into dotted-decimal format (192.168.123.132). The decimal numbers separated by periods are the octets converted from binary to decimal notation.

    For a TCP/IP wide area network (WAN) to work efficiently as a collection of networks, the routers that pass packets of data between networks do not know the exact location of a host for which a packet of information is destined. Routers only know what network the host is a member of and use information stored in their route table to determine how to get the packet to the destination host's network. After the packet is delivered to the destination's network, the packet is delivered to the appropriate host.

    For this process to work, an IP address has two parts. The first part of an IP address is used as a network address, the last part as a host address. If you take the example 192.168.123.132 and divide it into these two parts you get the following:

    192.168.123. Network
    .132 Host

    -or-

    192.168.123.0 - network address.
    0.0.0.132 - host address.



    Subnet Mask

    The subnet mask is the second item, which is required for TCP/IP to work. The subnet mask is used by the TCP/IP to determine whether a host is on the local subnet or on a remote network.

    In TCP/IP, the parts of the IP address that are used as the network and host addresses are not fixed, so the network and host addresses above cannot be determined unless you have more information. This information is supplied in another 32-bit number called a subnet mask. In this example, the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0. It is not obvious what this number means unless you know that 255 in binary notation equals 11111111; so, the subnet mask is:

    11111111.11111111.11111111.0000000

    Lining up the IP address and the subnet mask together, the network and host portions of the address can be separated:

    11000000.10101000.01111011.10000100 -- IP address (192.168.123.132)
    11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 -- Subnet mask (255.255.255.0)

    The first 24 bits (the number of ones in the subnet mask) are identified as the network address, with the last 8 bits (the number of remaining zeros in the subnet mask) identified as the host address. This gives you the following:

    11000000.10101000.01111011.00000000 -- Network address (192.168.123.0)
    00000000.00000000.00000000.10000100 -- Host address (000.000.000.132)

    So now you know, for this example using a 255.255.255.0 subnet mask, that the network ID is 192.168.123.0, and the host address is 0.0.0.132. When a packet arrives on the 192.168.123.0 subnet (from the local subnet or a remote network), and it has a destination address of 192.168.123.132, your computer will receive it from the network and process it.




    Domain Names

    Using a name is easier.12 digit numbers are hard to remember.

    Domain names are names used for TCP/IP addresses. academictutorials.com is a domain name.



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    Keywords: tcp ip ports, tcp ip optimizer, tcp ip patch, tcp ip protocol, tcp ip pdf

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