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SQL Modification Statements


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SQL Modification Statements


A D V E R T I S E M E N T

The SQL Modification Statements make changes to database data in tables and columns. There are 3 modification statements:




INSERT Statement


The INSERT Statement adds one or more rows to a table. It has two formats:

    INSERT INTO table-1 [(column-list)] VALUES (value-list)
    

and,

    INSERT INTO table-1 [(column-list)] (query-specification)
    

The first form inserts a single row into table-1 and explicitly specifies the column values for the row. The second form uses the result of query-specification to insert one or more rows into table-1. The result rows from the query are the rows added to the insert table. Note: the query cannot reference table-1.

Both forms have an optional column-list specification. Only the columns listed will be assigned values. Unlisted columns are set to null, so unlisted columns must allow nulls. The values from the VALUES Clause (first form) or the columns from the query-specification rows (second form) are assigned to the corresponding column in column-list in order.

If the optional column-list is missing, the default column list is substituted. The default column list contains all columns in table-1 in the order they were declared in CREATE TABLE, or CREATE VIEW.


VALUES Clause

The VALUES Clause in the INSERT Statement provides a set of values to place in the columns of a new row. It has the following general format:

    VALUES ( value-1 [, value-2] ... )
    

value-1 and value-2 are Literal Values or Scalar Expressions involving literals. They can also specify NULL.

The values list in the VALUES clause must match the explicit or implicit column list for INSERT in degree (number of items). They must also match the data type of corresponding column or be convertible to that data type.

 


INSERT Examples

    INSERT INTO p (pno, color) VALUES ('P4', 'Brown')
    

    Before   After
    pno descr color
    P1 Widget Blue
    P2 Widget Red
    P3 Dongle Green



    =>


    pno descr color
    P1 Widget Blue
    P2 Widget Red
    P3 Dongle Green
    P4 NULL Brown

    INSERT INTO sp
    SELECT s.sno, p.pno, 500
    FROM s, p
    WHERE p.color='Green' AND s.city='London'
    

    Before   After
    sno pno qty
    S1 P1 NULL
    S2 P1 200
    S3 P1 1000
    S3 P2 200



    =>


    sno pno qty
    S1 P1 NULL
    S2 P1 200
    S3 P1 1000
    S3 P2 200
    S2 P3 500




UPDATE Statement


The UPDATE statement modifies columns in selected table rows. It has the following general format:

    UPDATE table-1 SET set-list [WHERE predicate]
    

The optional WHERE Clause has the same format as in the SELECT Statement. See WHERE Clause. The WHERE clause chooses which table rows to update. If it is missing, all rows are in table-1 are updated.

The set-list contains assignments of new values for selected columns. See SET Clause.

The SET Clause expressions and WHERE Clause predicate can contain subqueries, but the subqueries cannot reference table-1. This prevents situations where results are dependent on the order of processing.


SET Clause

The SET Clause in the UPDATE Statement updates (assigns new value to) columns in the selected table rows. It has the following general format:

    SET column-1 = value-1 [, column-2 = value-2] ...
    

column-1 and column-2 are columns in the Update table. value-1 and value-2 are expressions that can reference columns from the update table. They also can be the keyword -- NULL, to set the column to null.

Since the assignment expressions can reference columns from the current row, the expressions are evaluated first. After the values of all Set expressions have been computed, they are then assigned to the referenced columns. This avoids results dependent on the order of processing.


UPDATE Examples

    UPDATE sp SET qty = qty + 20
    

    Before   After
    sno pno qty
    S1 P1 NULL
    S2 P1 200
    S3 P1 1000
    S3 P2 200



    =>


    sno pno qty
    S1 P1 NULL
    S2 P1 220
    S3 P1 1020
    S3 P2 220

    UPDATE s
    SET name = 'Tony', city = 'Milan'
    WHERE sno = 'S3'
    

    Before   After
    sno name city
    S1 Pierre Paris
    S2 John London
    S3 Mario Rome



    =>


    sno name city
    S1 Pierre Paris
    S2 John London
    S3 Tony Milan




DELETE Statement


The DELETE Statement removes selected rows from a table. It has the following general format:

    DELETE FROM table-1 [WHERE predicate]
    

The optional WHERE Clause has the same format as in the SELECT Statement. See WHERE Clause. The WHERE clause chooses which table rows to delete. If it is missing, all rows are in table-1 are removed.

The WHERE Clause predicate can contain subqueries, but the subqueries cannot reference table-1. This prevents situations where results are dependent on the order of processing.


DELETE Examples

    DELETE FROM sp WHERE pno = 'P1'
    

    Before   After
    sno pno qty
    S1 P1 NULL
    S2 P1 200
    S3 P1 1000
    S3 P2 200



    =>


    sno pno qty
    S3 P2 200

    DELETE FROM p WHERE pno NOT IN (SELECT pno FROM sp)
    

    Before   After
    pno descr color
    P1 Widget Blue
    P2 Widget Red
    P3 Dongle Green



    =>


    pno descr color
    P1 Widget Blue
    P2 Widget Red



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