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Java Tutorial
Java Introduction
Object Oriented Programming Concepts
Anatomy of a Java Application
Syntax and Semantics of Java
Java Objects, Classes, and Interfaces
The String and StringBuffer Classes in Java
Setting Program Attributes in Java
Using System Resources in Java
Threads of Control in Java
Errors and Exceptions in Java
Java Input and Output Streams
Overview of Java Applet
Creating an Applet User Interface in Java
Communicating with Other Programs in Java
Overview of the Java UI
Using GUI Building Blocks in Java
Laying Out Components within a Container
Working with Graphics in Java
How Java Differs from C and C++
Java Summary

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Java Summary


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A D V E R T I S E M E N T

What is Object?

The real-world objects(any living or non- living thing) share two characteristics: they do have state and behaviour. For example, dogs have a state ( like name, color, etc) and behaviour ( like barking, fetching etc). Also consider for example a Bicycles have a state such as current gear, current wheels, number of gears etc and and behaviour such as braking, accelerating etc.
After the real-world objects Software objects have been modelled in that, they too,have states and behaviours. A software object maintains states in the variables and implements behaviour by methods.




The Benefit of Encapsulation

  • Modular programming-- The source code for any of the object can be written and maintained independently from those of the source code written for other objects. Also, an object can be easily used passing around in the system. For example you can give your bicycle to someone else and it will still work for them too.

  • Information hiding-- An object has a public interface by which other objects can communicate with it. But on the other hand objects can maintain private information and methods that cannot be communicated to others.



The Benefit of Messages

  • Since everything that an object can do is expressed through its methods, message passing supports all possible interactions between objects.

  • To send and receive messages back and forth objects don't need to be in the same process or even on the same machine.



The Benefit of Classes

Objects provide the benefit of modularity and information hiding. Classes provide the benefit of reusability. Bicycle manufacturers reuse the same blueprint over and over again to build lots of bicycles. Software programmers use the same class over and over to again create many objects.




The Benefit of Inheritance

  • Subclasses provide specialized behaviours from the basis of common elements provided by the superclass. Through the use of inheritance, programmers can reuse the code in the superclass many times.

  • Programmers can implement superclasses that define "generic" behaviours (called abstract classes). The essence of the superclass is defined and may be partially implemented but much of the class is left undefined and unimplemented. Other programmers fill in the details with specialized subclasses.



Constructors

These are some of the rules on constructors:

  • private constructors()- keyword used "private", no one can instantiate the class as object. But can still expose public static methods, and these methods can construct object and return it, but no one else can do this.
  • package constructors() - None of them outside your package can construct an instance of your class. This is useful when you want to have classes in your package which can do new yourClass() and don't want to let anyone else to do this.
  • protected constructors() - keyword used "protected" only the subclasses of your class can make use of this package.
  • public constructors() - keyword used "public" the generic constructor will use these.




Setting Program Attributes

A program typically needs this information about the system and application environment to make decisions about how to do something, or what to do. Also, a program may wish to modify certain attributes itself, or allow a user to change them. Thus a program needs to be able to read and write various system attributes and program-specific attributes. Java programs can manage these attributes through three mechanisms: properties, application command line arguments, and applet parameters.

  • Properties
    Use properties to define environmental attributes on a persistent basis. That is, use properties when they need to be in effect for each invocation of a program.
  • Application Command Line Arguments
    Use command line arguments to define or modify environmental attributes on a non-persistent basis. That is, use command line arguments to change one or more attributes for just one invocation of a program.
  • Applet Parameters
    Use applet parameters to define or modify environmental attributes on a non-persistent basis for applets. That is, use parameters to set one or more attributes for a single invocation of an applet.



What is Thread?

Programmers are familiar with writing sequential programs. The program that displays "Hello World!", or program which sorts a list of names, or computes the list of prime numbers, are sequential all programs: each has beginning, end, sequence, and at any given time during runtime of program there is single point of execution.

A thread is similar to a sequential program, a single thread do also has beginning, end, sequence, and at any given time during runtime of thread there will be a single point of execution. But the thread itself is not a program it cannot run by itself but runs within the program.




An applet can communicate with the other programs in three different ways:

  • By invoking the public methods of other applets on the same page
  • By using an API defined in the java.applet package, which allows it to communicate in limited way with a browser or applet viewer that contains it.
  • By using the API defined in the java.net package to communicate over network with the other programs. Other programs must be running on a host which the applet originated from.




How to Choose a Layout Manager

AWT-provided layout managers have different strengths and weakness. This section discusses some of the common layout scenarios and which AWT layout managers may work for each scenario. If none of the AWT layout managers is right for our situation, we should use layout managers contributed to the net.

  • Scenario: We need to display a component in as much space as it can. Consider using the BorderLayout or GridBagLayout. If you use the BorderLayout, we will need to put the space-hungry component at the center. With GridBagLayout, we will need to set constraints for the component so that the fill=GridBagConstraints.BOTH. Or, if we do not mind every other component in the same container being as large as our space-hungry component, we can use a GridLayout.
  • Scenario: We need to display a few components in the compact row at their natural size. Consider using Panel to hold the components and using a Panel's default FlowLayout manager.
  • Scenario: We need to display few same-sized components in rows and/or the columns. GridLayout is perfect for this purpose. Use the Panel if it isnecessary to contain the components.




Drawing simple Shapes

Graphics class defines methods for drawing the following types of shapes:

  • Lines ( drawLine() )
  • Rectangles ( drawRect() & fillRect() )
  • Raised or lowered rectangles ( draw3DRect() and fill3DRect() )
  • Round-edged rectangles ( drawRoundRect() and fillRoundRect() )
  • Ovals ( drawOval() and fillOval())
  • Arcs ( drawArc() and fillArc() )
  • Polygons ( drawPolygon() and fillPolygon() )
Except for polygons and lines, all shapes are specified using their bounding rectangle. Once you understand rectangles, drawing other shapes is relatively easy. For this reason, this page will concentrate on rectangle drawing.



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Keywords:introduction to java tutorial, java language, introduction to java programming, introduction to java a programming language

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