Ranchi is the capital city of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Jharkhand accounts for 40% of mineral resources of India. Alone Ranchi accounts for 50% mineral production of the state, nearing about 18% of nation's mineral production. For this reason Ranchi is also called the Manchester of the East. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, Western West Bengal and the present eastern Chhattisgarh. Jharkhand State was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas.
The name Ranchi comes from "archi" an Oraon/Kurukh word for the farmer's "baton" in use while ploughing. Before that up to 1927, this place (Ranchi) was known as Rachi. The area was an agricultural locality and Doranda ('duran' 'दुरङ' means song/sing & 'da ah' 'दअः' is water - Mundari words), in between Hinoo & Harmoo River was a better known place for its military base and garrison. The present Purani Ranchi was originally known as the village Archi. Ranchi is a prominent political, commercial, industrial, and educational hub of eastern India.