Paṭna is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar. The modern city of Patna is situated on the southern bank of the Ganges. The city also straddles the rivers Kosi, Sone and Gandak. Patna is approximately 25 km long and 9 km to 10 km wide. Patna is 14th most populous cities in India with approximately 1.8 million and 168th most populous agglomerations in world . It's the largest city in Eastern India after Kolkata. Today, all major companies have a base in Patna reflecting the growing importance of the city. The city is growing rapidly with bouyant development in sectors including retail and property. It is also fast emerging as hub of higher education with institutes of national repute being started in Patna.
Apart from being the administrative centre of the state and its historic importance, the city is also a major educational and medical centre. The Economy of patna is based on local service industry. Patna is recording the highest per capita gross district domestic product of Rs 31,441 in Bihar  which better than the most of the metropolitan in India  Patna is 21st fastest growing city and urban areas in world and 5th fastest growing city in India. In June 2009, The World Bank ranked Patna as the second best city in India to start a business, after Delhi.
Patna is one of oldest continuously inhabited places in the world.. Ancient Patna, known as Pataliputra, was the capital of the Magadha Empire under the Haryanka, Nanda, Mauryan, Sunga, Gupta, Pala and Suri dynasties. Pataliputra was also a famous seat of learning and fine arts. Its population during Maurya period (around 300 BCE), was about 400,000. The walled old area, called Patna City by the locals, is a major trading centre.
The Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir , Nalanda, Bodhgaya, and Pawapuri are nearby and Patna is also a sacred city for Sikhs. The Sikh Guru, Founder and first Commander-in-Chief of Sikh Khalsa Army, Guru Gobind Singh, was born Here.